content='1;url='http-equiv='refresh'/> Natural Health Remedy: July 2011

Saturday, July 30, 2011


A local Nigerian plant could provide the
source of a novel drug for alcohol induced
kidney damage and diabetes.
NIGERIAN researchers have isolated a local
plant, Abrus precatorious, which seed
extract has some anti-diabetic properties
similar to that of a conventional diabetic
drug and could protect the kidney against
alcohol-induced damage.
The researchers from the department of
human anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical
Sciences, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa
State; and the Department of Anatomical
Pathology, University of Port-Harcourt
Teaching Hospital Port-Harcourt, Rivers
State, concluded: “The results of this study
strongly indicate that the aqueous extract
of the seed of Abrus precatorius has
protective effect on alcohol-induced renal
injury and that this effect is related to the
attenuation of alcohol- mediated lipid
peroxidation of renal parenchymal cells.
Lipid peroxidation refers to the oxidative
degradation of lipids. It is the process in
which free radicals “steal” electrons from
the lipids in cell membranes, resulting in cell
Parenchymal cells are the main functional
cells of an organ or tissue - as distinguished
from non-parenchymal cells (frequently
referred to as stromal cells) that provide
supporting structural elements such as cells
forming the connective tissue, blood
vessels, and nerves.
The study was published in European
Journal of Scientific Research.
Commonly called jequirity (from a Brazilian
name); crab’s eyes (the seeds); bird’s eye
(the seeds); prayer beads (the seeds); lucky
bean (the seeds); Indian liquorice, or wild
liquorice (the root), Abrus precatorious
belongs to the family Leguminosae-
Papilionoideae. In Nigeria, it is omisinmisin
in Yoruba, and empo in Esan.
Previous studies have shown that the leaf
extract of Abrus precatorius could be
applied on the eyes for cataract and
chewed for asthma.
According to The useful plants of west
tropical Africa, Vol. 3, Abrus precatorious is a
twining herbaceous, sub-woody, lianous
plant with stems up to 1?5 cm diameter; of
thickets, clearings, secondary jungle of all
types and galleried forest in slightly damp
sites, throughout the region from Senegal to
Nigeria and Fernando Po.
The study investigated the renal protective
activities of the seed extract of Abrus
precatorius following alcohol induced renal
damage in adult male Sprague dawley
wister rats. Experimental rats were divided
into six groups of five rats per group. Renal
damage was induced with alcohol (1.6g/kg)
orally. The treated group received the crude
extract (200mg/kg) orally in addition to
alcohol for six weeks, with normal feeds
and water ad libitum (water as desired).
Histological studies, biochemical indicators
of renal function and thiobarbituric acid-
reactive substances, as markers of lipid
peroxidation, were thereafter determined.
Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances
(TBARS) is a well-established method for
screening and monitoring lipid
The researchers wrote: “Oral administration
of alcohol caused significant elevation of
serum potassium and sodium levels as well
as creatinine and malondialdehyde levels.
There were structural alterations in renal
tubules, glomerular infiltration by chronic
inflammatory cells.
“Concurrent administration of same doses
of alcohol and seed extract of Abrus
precatorius resulted in a suppression of
alcohol-induced renal injury. Measurement
of malondialdehyde level indicated that this
effect is related to the attenuation of
alcohol-induced lipid peroxidation by the
seed extract. We conclude that the seed
extract of abrus precatorius could protect
the kidney against alcohol-induced
parenchymal injury.”
Creatinine is a chemical waste molecule that
is generated from muscle metabolism.
Creatinine is produced from creatine, a
molecule of major importance for energy
production in muscles. Approximately two
per cent of the body’s creatine is converted
to creatinine every day. . Creatinine is
transported through the bloodstream to the
kidneys. The kidneys filter out most of the
creatinine and dispose of it in the urine.
Although it is a waste, creatinine serves a
vital diagnostic function. Creatinine has
been found to be a fairly reliable indicator
of kidney function. As the kidneys become
impaired the creatinine will rise. Abnormally
high levels of creatinine thus warn of
possible malfunction or failure of the
kidneys, sometimes even before a patient
reports any symptoms. It is for this reason
that standard blood and urine tests
routinely check the amount of creatinine in
the blood.
Malondialdehyde level is the end product of
lipid peroxidation and is used as a marker
of free radical-induced tissue damage.
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a test used
to check how well the kidneys are working.
Specifically, it estimates how much blood
passes through the tiny filters in the
kidneys, called glomeruli, each minute.
The researchers said the finding is
supportive evidence that the seed extract
of Abrus precatorius has protective effect
against alcohol induced renal injury and
that this effect may be related to a
reduction in alcohol-induced lipid
peroxidation. ß
The active metabolites in the seed of Abrus
precatorius include abrin, abrus agglutinin,
glycyrrhizin gallic acid, trigonelline,
precatorine and lipolytic enzymes. Glucine,
Coumestrans, resin asparagines and sterols,
among others, have also been
demonstrated. Gallic acid, glycyrrhizin and
trigonelline are potent antioxidants. These
metabolites may account for the ability of
the seed extract of Abrus precatorius to
attenuate alcohol induced lipid peroxidation
of renal cell membrane vivo.
The seed extract of Abrus precatorius have
also been shown to possess other
pharmacologic properties. It was shown to
have anti-fertility effect. Researchers have
also demonstrated ureterotonic effect and
antidiarrhoeal effect. More recently,
Adelowotan et al. demonstrated
antimicrobial activities with the aqueous
extract of the seed of Abrus precatorius.
The researchers added: “Although Abrus
precatorius has been shown to be stable in
the gastrointestinal tract, the presence of
toxic lectins in its seed limits its
pharmacologic utility. Abrin and Abrin
agglutinin are type IV ribosome inactivating
proteins that inhibit protein synthesis in
eukaryotes and induce apoptosis.
“Concurrent administration of vitamin E, a
potent antioxidant, with alcohol and Abrus
precatorius seed extract did not produce
enhanced antioxidant effect in this study.
This can be explained by the diversity of
the mechanisms by which antioxidants
restrict lipid peroxidation by free radicals.
Denisov and Azatyam explained that the co-
administration of two inhibitors of free
radicals to an oxidized hydrocarbon or
other substances may exhibit a net additive,
synergistic or antagonistic effect. It is not
unlikely therefore that a net antagonistic
effect was the outcome following
concurrent administration of the seed
extract of Abrus precatorius, alcohol and
vitamin E.”
Another study published in Journal of
Applied Sciences and Environmental
Management has shown that the
chloroform – methanol extract of Abrus
precatorius seed has some anti-diabetic
properties similar to that of chlopropamide
(a conventional diabetic drug).
The researchers from the Departments of
Biochemistry, University of Port Harcourt,
Rivers State, and University of Nigeria,
Nsukka, Enugu State, studied the anti-
diabetic effect of chloroform – methanol
extract of Abrus precatorious seed, in
alloxan diabetic rabbits.
The effect was compared to that of
chlorpropamide – a known anti-diabetic
drug in the class of sulphonylurea and a
control group that received normal saline
instead of the extract. Normal blood glucose
levels drawn before the alloxan injection
were 127.80 ± 2.55, 114.30 ± 4.17 and
123.60 ± 1.47 mg/100ml for chloroform –
methanol, chlorpropamide and control
respectively. When 50mg / kg body weight
of chloroform – methanol, chlorpropamide
and 5ml of normal saline for control were
given orally, blood glucose levels decreased
in chloroform – methanol and
chlorpropamide groups of alloxan diabetic
rabbits but not in control.
The percentage reduction of blood glucose
of chlorpropamide was 13.8, 32.3, 60.3,
53.5, 46.8, 46.3 and 46.2 after 05, 10, 20,
30, 40, 60 and 68 hours of oral
administration respectively, while that of
chloroform – methanol extract was 42.9,
58.7, 67.4, 69.1, 67.9, 56.6 and 51.8 per cent
respectively. The peak percentage reduction
was 69.1 per cent after 30 hours and 61.3
per cent after 20 hours, for chloroform –
methanol extract and chlorpropamide
The researchers concluded: “This study
therefore has shown that the chloroform –
methanol extract of Abrus precatorius seed
has some anti-diabetic properties similar to
that of chlopropamide. This is shown in
their similar percentage reduction in blood
glucose level.”


Medical doctors at a Nigerian Teaching
Hospital has validated the use of medicinal
plants in treating Human Immuno-
deficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immune
Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) opportunistic
DOCTORS at the College of Medicine, Abia
State University, Uturu said that some
medicinal plants could be useful in the
management of immune compromised
opportunistic infections in people living
withHuman Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV)/
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
(AIDS) .
According to the study published in Middle
East Journal of Family Medicine, there are
medicinal plants of interest, which herbal
medical practitioners claim are useful in
treating infections including HIV/AIDS
opportunistic infections like tuberculosis,
diarrhoea, and others.
The study aimed to highlight important
herbs used in treating and/or preventing
infections including HIV/AIDS opportunistic
infections in Nigeria. The study identified
limitations to the advancement of
traditional medicine and ways forward.
The author, Dr. E. E. Enwereji, said that this
was necessary now that most countries
were encouraging acceptable and
affordable local technologies in the
prevention and/or treatment of diseases
including HIV opportunistic infections.
To prepare this document, the author
underwent six months apprenticeship on
the use of herbs from three renowned
traditional healers. Data were gathered
through literature review, interviews and
observations made during participation in
treatment of patients. Ways forward in
practice of traditional medicine were
emphasised during the study.
Nigeria is a large country with numerous
rich natural medicinal plants and human
resources. Nigeria has immense potential in
the area of using preparations from these
plants to complement what the western
world offers in treatment and/or
prevention of infections including HIV/AIDS
opportunistic infections.
About 15 per cent of flowering plants in
Nigeria have some medicinal properties. In
Abia State of Nigeria, there are about 3,000
medicinal plant species for treating
different diseases including opportunistic
infections. Over 70 million Nigerians depend
on preparations from them in the cure of
diseases. Though treatment of HIV/AIDS
opportunistic infections like pneumonia,
diarrhoea, tuberculosis, and others, was
targeted, treatment of other health
problems of interest was also included.
During the study, the author participated in
treatment of 56 patients comprising 38
(67.9 per cent) males and 18 (32.1 per cent)
females who came down with various
ailments including malaria, typhoid,
diarrhoea, boils, productive cough and
others. Most of these cases were treated
with assorted herbs suspected to prevent
or treat such ailments.
The researchers concluded: “Since a good
number of individuals who are in contact
with traditional medicine had poor
knowledge of mode of transmission of
infections, procedures should be instituted
for the training and re-training of
traditional healers to enhance their level of
education, facilitate their professionalism
and improve collaboration with other
healthcare workers in the management and
prevention of diseases including HIV/AIDS
opportunistic infections.
“There is lack of sustainability for traditional
medical practice in Nigeria. This is because
traditional medicine depended on medicinal
plants harvested from frequently disturbed
ecosystems that are used as farmland. More
so, mode of harvesting medicinal plants is
not calculated to ensure their sustainability.
Little or no conscious effort is made to
cultivate medicinal plants for future use.
“Increasing scarcity of medicinal plants calls
for efforts and strategies that would
incorporate Ministry of Agriculture,
Extension Agriculture Stations and others in
the communities in planting of medicinal
plants to ensure sustainability. It is felt that
treatment/prevention programmes are not
likely to yield greater results if planting of
medicinal plants is handled in isolation.
These government offices could serve as
information dissemination centres for anti-
deforestation campaigns that would
sensitise people at the grassroots level. This
process would encourage community
involvement in preservation of medicinal
“Therefore, for the next decade, the most
important strategy to sustain traditional
medicine in Nigeria including Abia State
would be public awareness and education
on preservation of medicinal plants and use
of traditional medicine to control diseases.
“Therefore, traditional medicine should be
incorporated into the existing Primary
Health Care system to ensure greater
utilisation and sustainability so as to reduce
demand for unaffordable and inaccessible
western treatments. Additionally, intellectual
property rights of traditional healers should
be recognised and compensated. This
would motivate them to give out useful
information to interested persons.
“Finally, since lack of preservation facilities
constituted drawbacks to advancement of
traditional medicine it is therefore
recommended that adequately equipped
laboratories should process and preserve
medicinal plants to ensure safe dosages are
According to a manual on nutritional care
and support for people living with HIV/AIDS,
Living well with HIV/AIDS, published by the
World Health Organisation (WHO) in
collaboration with the Food and Agricultural
Organisation of the United Nations (FAO)
some Nigerian herbs have been found to
benefit people living with HIV/AIDS.
It reads: “Aloe helps to relieve constipation
use as extract, boil and drink the
concentrated water. To be used in limited
amounts, stop immediately if it causes
cramps or diarrhoea. Basil (nchuanwu in Ibo
and effirin in Yoruba) helps to relieve
nausea and aid digestion, has an antiseptic
and digestive problems. Add to food to treat
nausea. Use function for mouth sores as
gargle for mouth sores. Cayenne (hot
pepper) stimulates appetite, helps fight
infection, heals ulcers and intestinal
inflammation. Add a pinch to cooked or raw
foods. For an energizing drink add to fruit
juice or water. Stimulate appetite; help weak
digestion, diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting.
Use in soups, stews, warmed fruit juice and
“Garlic has antibacterial, antiviral and
antifungal function, particularly in the gut,
intestines, lungs and use in food vagina.
Helps digestion and feeling of weakness. It
is also good for thrush, throat infections,
herpes and diarrhoea. Prepare tea or
energy drink, or use in food.
“Ginger improves digestion, energises,
relieves diarrhoea and stimulates appetite.
Used for treating common colds, flu and
nausea. Use either as a spice in meals or
prepare a ginger tea. Lemon is antibacterial
and helps digestion. Add lemon juice to
food or drink. Lemon grass has a calming
effect as well as soothing digestion and
alleviating stress. Use as tea.
“Neem (Dogonyaro) brings down fever. Cut
a fresh twig, remove the leaves and boil the
bark in water; drink as tea. The bark can
also be chewed. Thyme has antiseptic and
antifungal function. Relaxes nervous
coughing and increases mucosal secretions.
Stimulates digestion and the growth of the
good intestinal flora in the gut. Use as
gargle or mouthwash, as a vaginal douche
or as tea (particularly effective in the gut).
Turmeric/ yellow root acts as digestive aid,
antiseptic and antioxidant. Use powdered in
rice, cereals, etc.”

Thursday, July 14, 2011


Extracts of a local plant could provide the
next novel drug for pains, breast, liver and
lung cancers. Researchers are exploiting the
potentials of local plant to develop novel
drugs for the management of pains
NIGERIAN researchers at Michael Okpara
University, Umudike, Abia State, have found
that an extract of a poisonous shrub
Jatropha curcas acts as a strong painkiller
and may have a mode of action different
from conventional analgesics, such as
morphine and other pharmaceuticals.
Details of tests are reported in the current
issue of the International Journal of
Biomedical Engineering and Technology.
The researchers had reported last year in
the African Journal of Biomedical Resident
that the methanolic leaf extract of Jatropha
curcas had significant analgesic properties
and might be acting through both
peripheral and central pain mechanisms.
Commonly called physic nut, pig nut, fig nut,
purging nut and Barbados nut, Jatropha
curcas belongs to the plant family
In Nigeria, Jatropha curcas is called mbubok
in Anaang, bilit in Angas, habb el meluk in
Arabic-Shuwa, gàrà (the plant), kparak gàrà
(the fruit) in Birom, oru-ebo in Edo, étó o
kpà (tree of death) in Efik, kokolaji in Fulani,
kwotewi in Gwari, bíí ní dà zúgúú in Hausa,
étó-ókpà in Ibibio, ocígbede in Idoma, bulu
olu, olulu-idu, òwulù idu, ugbolo, okwata,
ugbolu, and okweni, ho in Jukun, ígádàm in
Tiv, urieroh in Urhobo, bòtúje, bòtújè pupa
pupa, làpá làpá, lóbòtújè, lóbòtújè pupa,
olóbòntújè, olobotuje and bòtújè-ùbò in
Omeh Yusuf and Ezeja Maxwell of the
Micheal Okpara University of Agriculture,
Umudike extracted what they believed to
be the physiologically active components of
the leaves of Jatropha curcas using
methanol as solvent. They compared the
effects of this extract at 100, 200 and 400
milligrams per kilogramme of body mass,
against 400 mg/kg of acetylsalicylic acid
(aspirin) in standard laboratory animal tests
for assessing the strength of painkillers.
They found that 100 mg/kg was an
inadequate dose, however, 200 and 400
mg/kg doses produced analgesia
comparable to aspirin, affirming the use of
the plant for pain relief in traditional
medicine. The team suspects that the extract
may be acting through both peripheral and
central pain mechanisms. Yusuf and
Maxwell are now carrying out more work
on isolating and characterising the active
ingredient in the extract and in determining
the precise mode of action.
Also, Thai researchers have demonstrated
that the purified compound from roots of
Jatropha curcas potentially exhibited the
effectiveness of its anti-cancer activity and
apoptosis induction in breast cancer. “It
thus, holds the promise of being a potent
and selective anti-cancer agent that
deserved further exploration.”
According to the study published in Thai
Cancer Journal, the purified compound from
Jatropha curcas has been extensively
investigated for the anti-cancer activity on
cancer cells. In this study, the effects of
purified compound from roots of Jatropha
curcas, Curcusone C, underlying anti-
proliferation activity and apoptosis
induction in human mammary carcinoma;
MCF-7 was investigated.
India researchers have also found that the
methanolic fraction of leaves of Jatropha
curcas (MFJC) could protect the liver against
hepatocellular carcinoma (liver cancer)
induced by Aflatoxin B (AFB1), that is
oxidative damage in rats due to its
capability to induce the in vivo antioxidant
According to the study published in
International Journal of Pharmacology and
Science, the researchers administered orally
(100 & 200 mg/kg) for 14 days to
hepatocarcinoma bearing rats. It reads:
“Marked increase in lipid peroxide levels
and concomitant decrease in enzymic
antioxidants levels were observed in
carcinoma induced rats, while MFJC
treatment reversed the conditions to near
normal levels. Liver histopathology showed
that MFJC reduced the incidence of liver
lesions, lymphocytic infiltrations, and
hepatic necrosis induced by AFB1 in rats.”
Another study published in African Journal
of Pharmacy and Pharmacology found that
the methanolic fraction of Jatropha curcas
inhibited the spread of lung cancer in rats.
The Indian researchers reported that
simultaneous administration of methanolic
fraction at doses 100 and 200mg/kg, p.o
significantly inhibited the metastatic colony
formation of the melanoma in lungs by
47.54 and 69.52 per cent respectively, with
increase in the survival rate of the
metastatic tumour bearing animals, as
compared to the untreated control animals.
Metastasis, or metastatic disease, is the
spread of a disease from one organ or part
to another non-adjacent organ or part.
Melanoma is the most dangerous type of
skin cancer.
According to The useful plants of west
tropical Africa, Vol 2 by H. M. Burkill, Jatropha
curcas is a shrub or tree to six metre high,
native of the American tropics and now
dispersed and naturalised thoughout the
Burkill wrote: “The stem and twigs are used
in Nigeria and in Northern Cameroun as
chew-sticks. The watery sap is put onto
fresh cuts and sores at the corner of the
mouth. An infusion, hot or cold, of the
leaves is also taken internally for fever. The
Baakpe of Cameroon Mountain drink the
decoction with beer as a diuretic for
rheumatism, and in Nigeria an infusion of
young leafy shoots is used for most urinary
complaints. In Gabon a leaf-decoction is
considered good for cleansing the kidneys
and releasing bile.
“In Nigeria, a decoction of leaves with
natron is used by women as a wash for a
month before childbirth. In The Gambia the
leaves are used to make a mouth wash. In
Cote D’Ivoire heated leaves are applied to
relieve pain. A compress of leaves is applied
for toothache in Kordofan. In Ghana the
leaves are commonly an ingredient in
enema preparations, and are prepared,
along with oil-palm fruit, for an injection
administered to weakly children.
“In Southern Nigeria they are a remedy for
jaundice, applied by rectal injection. For
immediate application after snake bite, sap
from the leaf is recommended in Ghana. It is
said to dilute the snake’s venom and to stop
it from entering the blood-stream. For
emergency use herbalists recommend that
leaves be charred and powdered and held
in store. The leaves are also widely used to
treat guinea-worm sores as a lotion made
with the crushed leaves in hot water, or by
applying the ashes of burnt leaves.
“In Senegal an aqueous leaf-decoction is
taken by mouth for bronchitis, and a
decoction of dried leaves in The Gambia to
relieve coughing. The leaves and the green
viscid sap are rubefacient. Pounded leaves
are applied to sluggish ulcers and the sap of
dried leaves is applied direct to cuts and
bleeding wounds as a styptic.
“The pounded leaf has been used in India
as a repellant of house-flies, and in Ghana
the leaves are used to fumigate a house for
bed-bugs. In Indonesia the leaf is applied to
hard tumours. In Congo (Brazzaville) the sap
is instilled into the outer ear for otitis and in
Cote d’Ivoire it is given by enema for
blennorrhoea (an excessive discharge of
watery mucus, especially from the urethra
or the vagina) and by draught for jaundice.
The sap is given by the Tiv for the Benue
Plateau, Nigeria, to a child with fever. Leaf-
sap with water is a plaything for children
who blow bubbles with it. It can be used to
make soap. It is irritant and causes
inflammation in the eyes. It is used to put in
a hollow tooth and on to bee and wasp-
“Mixed with salt it is rubbed on teeth to
clean them. Sap from the leaf-petiole or the
bark is applied in The Gambia to wounds as
a drying agent and antiseptic.
“In India young twigs are used as a
dentifrice. In Cote D’Ivoire the sap is rubbed
on young children’s gums to help in
teething and the latex is given to newly-
born babies affected by tetanus.
“A root-decoction with natron or salt is used
in West Africa for gonorrhoea and with
flour for dysentery. Root-bark, dried and
pulverised, is applied as a dressing for
sores, and mixed with guinea-grain is
rubbed on gums to relieve the spasms of
infantile tetanus. The powdered root is
taken internally for worms. In Gabon a root-
macerate is taken for spermatorrhoea
(involuntary discharge of semen without
orgasm), or pieces of the stem may be
chewed for the same purpose.
“The dried fruits are powdered and taken
with food in The Gambia as a vermifuge
and to void excessive fat by inducing
diarrhoea and vomiting; they are also taken
for stomach-ache. The fruit and the seed are
reported to contain a contraceptive
principle. The seeds contain a palatable
pleasant-tasting kernel like that of the sweet
almond believing a latent toxicity. Poisoning
is of the irritant type causing nausea,
abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhoea,
depression and collapse. A purgative dose is
three to four seeds. Any more than this is
dangerous. For treatment of ascites they are
crushed and boiled with cereal pap, or
roasted in ashes and mixed with natron or
extract of wood-ashes and taken with
water or milk and in Congo (Brazzaville) as
many as eight seeds per day may be given
but buffered with peanuts or sugar-cane.
“Seeds enter into medication for serious
illnesses such as syphilis and leprosy. For
treatment of the former, seeds are crushed
and mixed with cereal foods and left to
ferment for two nights. They are used by
Igbo in Southern Nigeria for arthritic
troubles. The crushed seed or the seed-cake
in palm-oil is used in Gabon as a raticide.
“In Nigeria the seed is sometimes
incorporated along with Euphorbia latex in
a mixture (gunguma, Hausa, lówu, Nupe) to
poison corn as a bait for guinea-fowl. The
seed also has insecticidal potential. The seed
is about 35 per cent husk, 65 per cent
kernel, and the oil content of the kernel is
50 to 58 per cent.
“The oil, like the rest of the plant is
purgative and its clinical use is mainly
external. It is the oily extract called kufi in
Hausa, which is used as a rubefacient for
rheumatic conditions and for itch and other
parasitic skin-diseases. In Yoruba the plant
is called làpálàpá, meaning ‘ringworm’,
because the oil causes an irritative rash on
the skin of children.
“An oily preparation is applied to tumours
in Mauritania, and in Cote d’Ivoire to
scarifications around filaria blisters.The oil
consists mainly of stearic, palmitic, myristic,
oleic, linoleic and curcanoleic acids. A
phytotoxin, curcin, is present in the seed
and remains in the cake on expression
rendering the cake unusable as cattle-food,
but it is satisfactory as a fertiliser. This
substance is related to ricin of Ricinus and
to crotin of Croton tiglium. A resin is also
present in the seed and this is carried over
with the oil in extraction. This is a vesicant
causing redness and pustular eruptions.
There is record of the oil being used as an
adulterant of cooking oils with drastic
purgative effects. Ash from the burnt plant
is used to produce a lye for soap-making. A
vegetable salt is also extracted.”

Higher-Protein Diets Can Improve Appetite Control, Satiety.

A NEW study demonstrates that higher-
protein meals improve perceived appetite
and satiety in overweight and obese men
during weight loss. According to the
research, published in Obesity, higher-
protein intake led to greater satiety
throughout the day as well as reductions in
both late night and morning appetite
compared to a normal protein diet.
“Research has shown that higher protein
diets, those containing 18 to 35 per cent of
daily calorie intake from dietary protein, are
associated with reductions in hunger and
increased fullness throughout the day and
into the evening hours,” said Dr. Heather
Leidy, study author and professor in the
Department of Nutrition and Exercise
Physiology at the University of Missouri.
“In our study, the two groups ate either 25
or 14 per cent of calories from protein,
while the total calories and per cent of
calories from fat stayed the same between
the higher-protein and normal-protein diet
patterns. “
During the study, Leidy and associates also
conducted an eating frequency sub-study
in which the 27 participants on both
normal- and higher-protein diets consumed
either three meals or six meals per day. The
researchers found that eating frequency
had no effect on appetite and satiety on the
normal-protein diet. However, subjects on
the higher-protein diet who ate three meals
per day experienced greater evening and
late night fullness than those who ate six
meals per day.
This study supports previous research that
demonstrates higher-protein diets,
including egg breakfasts, are associated
with decreased calorie consumption. A
study published last year in Nutrition
Research showed that men ate roughly 112
fewer calories at a buffet lunch and 400
fewer calories in the 24-hour period
following a protein-rich egg breakfast
compared to a bagel breakfast. Another
study demonstrated that overweight
dieters who ate eggs for breakfast lost 65
per cent more weight and felt more
energetic than those who ate a bagel
breakfast of equal calories and volume.

Clinical Trials Support Ginger Use For Gestational Nausea, Vomiting.

RESEARCHERS have proven that the merits of
ginger go far beyond their anecdotal
reputation and should receive more
widespread recognition and use as an
effective and safe treatment for morning
Borelli and others conducted a systematic
literature search of double blind,
randomised controlled studies (RCTs) that
tested the efficacy of ginger and published
their results in the journal Obstetrics
Their analysis, which included six RCTs and
one prospective cohort study showed that
ginger was more effective than a placebo
and as effective as the standard drug in the
gestational treatment of nausea and
vomiting. What is more, when safety was
assessed, the subjects taking ginger were
absent of significant side effects and
adverse pregnancy outcomes.
The data on ginger is promising and should
be strongly considered for universal use.
What is more, proper dosages and dosage
forms need to be established for pregnant
women, since the clinical trials have used
varying doses and dosage forms (that is
powder and alcoholic extracts).
Nevertheless, at low-doses, ginger seems to
be extremely safe for all pregnant women
and does not carry the risk of causing
malformations of the developing embryo
when compared to the other frontline
Given the high prevalence of nausea and
vomiting during pregnancy and the
potential dangers of anti-emetic drugs,
pregnant women should strongly consider
using this time (and clinically) tested ancient
Ginger is a very nutritious food that
benefits the entire body and can be taken
every day. For the beginner, start by
grating a thumb size piece of ginger and
then steep into hot water for about 30
minutes. Or, the beginner can juice the
thumb size piece of ginger and then add the
juice into a cup of hot water. Slowly
increase the dose of ginger to desired
effect or tolerance (whichever comes first).
For instance, drink the ginger tea twice a
day, then three times a day, etc. and then
start to increase the amount of ginger to
hot water.

Thursday, July 7, 2011

Folate Intake And Colorectal Cancer.

INTAKE of high levels of folate may reduce
colorectal cancer risk, according to a new
study in Gastroenterology, the official
journal of the American Gastroenterological
Association (AGA) Institute. Folate is a water-
soluble B vitamin that occurs naturally in
"We found that all forms and sources of
folate were associated with lower risk of
colorectal cancer," said Victoria Stevens, PhD,
of the American Cancer Society and lead
author of this study.
"The strongest association was with total
folate, which suggests that total folate
intake is the best measure to define
exposure to this nutrient because it
encompasses all forms and sources." Total
folate includes naturally occurring food
folate and folic acid from fortified foods
and dietary supplements.
A research team investigated the
association between folate intake and
colorectal cancer among 99,523 participants
in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition
Cohort; a total of 1,023 participants were
diagnosed with colorectal cancer between
1999 and 2007, a period entirely after
folate fortification began.
Neither higher nor lower risk was observed
during the first two years of follow-up
(1999 to 2001), while associations were
statistically significantly inverse for the
subsequent years (2002 to 2007).
The findings of this study add to the
epidemiologic evidence that high folate
intake reduces colorectal cancer incidence.
Further, one important difference between
the current study and previous studies was
the separate assessment of natural folates
and folic acid. Previous studies that
discriminated between folates considered
only the source (i.e., diet versus
supplement) and not the chemical form.
The study also addressed concerns that the
intake of high levels of folate frequently
consumed in the U.S. — as a result of the
recent increase in the use of folate-
containing supplements and mandatory
folate fortification of food — may actually
increase risk of cancer. No increased risk of
colorectal cancer was found for the highest
intake levels, suggesting that the high levels
of this vitamin consumed by significant
numbers of Americans should not lead to
increased incidence rates of this cancer in
the population.
Folates are essential nutrients needed to
make components used for functions
required for normal cell growth, including
DNA synthesis and repair. Because these
processes are critical for cell growth and
differentiation, the relationship between
folate intake and cancer development has
been investigated in several cancers, and
most extensively in colorectal cancer.

How Drinking Water May Cut High Blood Sugar Risk, (hyperglycemia).

DRINKING about one to two litres of water a
day may protect against the development
of high blood sugar (hyperglycemia),
French researchers report.
In a study of 3,615 men and women with
normal blood sugar levels at the start of the
study, those who reported that they drank
more than 34 ounces of water a day were
21 per cent less likely to develop
hyperglycemia over the next nine years
than those who said they drank 16 ounces
or less daily.
The analysis took into account other factors
that can affect the risk of high blood sugar,
including sex, age, weight, and physical
activity, as well as consumption of beer,
sugary drinks, and wine.
Still, the study doesn’t prove cause and
effect. People who drink more water could
share some unmeasured factor that
accounts for the association between
drinking more water and lower risk of high
blood sugar, says researcher Ronan Roussel,
professor of medicine at the Hospital Bichat
in Paris.
Despite the known influence of water intake
on vasopressin secretion, no study has
investigated a possible association between
drinking water and risk of high blood sugar,
he says.
Participants in the new study were offered
health examinations every three years,
including a self-administered questionnaire
asking how much water, wine, beer-cider,
and sweet drinks they drank a day.
Blood sugar levels were measured at the
study’s onset and about nine years later.
Over the course of the study, 565 people
developed hyperglycemia.

Tuesday, July 5, 2011

Fruits Better Than Carbohydrate Foods.

Some people do not recognise the role that
plants and fruits play in overall nutrition.
For example, in recent years, two trends have become increasingly
popular: the low-carbohydrate trend and
the high-protein trend.
A group of fat-loss enthusiasts believes that
eliminating carbohydrates from the diet is
the key to rapid and lasting fat loss. But the
other group of fitness recognize the crucial
role that protein plays in helping to elevate
overall metabolism and improve the body’s
ability to synthesize muscle tissue.
Nonetheless, what one eats determines so
many things, including being obese.
Certainly, many individuals fighting excess
weight would probably have been told to
avoid simple carbohydrates and embrace
complex carbohydrates. Although this
advice may seem logical and was in
popular a few decades ago, science has
since demonstrated that there is more to
the equation.
Professor Macdona Idu, a Professor of
Phytomedicine in the second annual lecture
series of the Faculty of Basic and Applied of
Benson Idahosa University, Benin City, Edo
State, said central to overall nutrition were
plants and fruits.
Professor Idu stressed that the
consumption of plants and fruits would
provide incredible amount of nutrients such
as vitamins and minerals which are needed
by the body for recovery, to fight diseases,
to repair tissues and to perform many other
“Consumption of fruits will help to reduce
the risk of cancer, stroke and other related
diseases. Many Nigerians had erroneous
belief that consumption of fruits would
make them to grow fat and as a result, had
deliberately removed fruits from their
diets,” he stated.
No doubt, traditional wisdom dictates that
simple sugars are rapidly absorbed, while
complex carbohydrates are digested slowly,
over time. Consequently, the advice “avoid
simple sugars and “embrace complex
carbohydrates” was embraced by many
Unfortunately, Professor Ida stated, “the
advice, “avoid simple sugars” and “embrace
complex carbohydrates” has caused people
to take some extreme measures, such as
avoiding fruits altogether because they are
composed mainly of simple sugars while
embracing such fare as breads, pasta, and
potatoes, because they are complex
Is this approach to classifying what is bad
or good for overall nutritional needs of the
body not oversimplified? Although many
fruits such as apples and oranges contain a
high quantity of fructose, the notions that
they digest rapidly or that they spike blood
sugar and raise insulin are not true.
According to Professor Ida, “Fructose is not
readily used by the body. Although the liver
preferentially stores fructose in order to
maintain blood sugar levels throughout the
day, the rest of the body utilizes glucose.
Therefore, in order to be used by the body,
fructose must undergo conversion.”
“This means the impact on blood sugar is
very gradual, making fruit a fantastic choice
for a food that will provide energy for a
prolonged period of time. On the other
hand, the baked potato and bread, both
touted as complex carbohydrates, act more
like sugars in the body. The body contains
enzymes that rapidly absorb the starches in
baked potato, causing a rapid rise in blood
sugar levels if baked potatoes are
consumed alone.
“Bread is highly processed: the constituent
grains are broken down (ground into flour),
diminishing the need for the stomach to
digest them. Therefore, the starches are
again rapidly absorbed and quickly released
as glucose into the blood stream.
Definitely, understanding what makes good
food is important since plants are
medicines. According to Professor Ida,
“between 25 and 60 per cent of the drugs
currently in use today were developed from
plants. Aspirin, the commonly used drug,
was developed by isolating a chemical
compound from a plant that has been
widely used in herbalism; White Willow
bark. Dioscorea, which is commonly
referred to as yam, is the source for some
contraceptives and progesterone creams.”
Beyond doubt, Professor Ida declared,
many plants support good health in many
ways. “Neem (Dongoyaro in Yoruba) is used
for skin conditions such as eczema,
ringworm and athletes’ foot as well as for
treating head lice. In addition, it is used in
treatment of malaria and insect repellent,”
he stated.
In addition, he remarked that Aloe vera
when taken internally, has a cleansing effect
on the body, by virtue of its action on the
digestive tract. “This makes it useful for a
number of skin conditions, especially
psoriasis, where the process of internal
detoxification is deemed by naturopaths to
be important,” he declared.
Scientific use of Aloe in wound healing was
first documented in 1935. Since then, there
have been a number of studies showing its
effectiveness as a treatment for minor
burns and other wounds.
The use of cooking spices such as garlic and
ginger dates back into ages in many African
“Garlic helps with the control of high
cholesterol and high blood pressure. It is
acts as a worm expeller.
However, people taking anticoagulant
medication such as aspirin or warfarin
should check with their medical doctor
before taking garlic, “he said.
Ginger reduces nausea and vomiting as well
as helps in inflammatory conditions such as
According to him, ginger works by
improving the efficiency of the digestive
processes, allowing faster transportation of
substances through the digestive tract,
lessening the irritation in the intestines,
reducing flatulence and intestinal spasms.
Papaya helps with problems of indigestion,
poor protein digestion and intestinal
parasites such as Tread worms. The expert
explained that the leaf and fruit of the
Papaya tree contain protein-digesting
enzymes (papain and chymopapain), which
help to break down proteins, carbohydrates
and fats.
Similarly, consumption of bananas, being
rich in iron, can stimulate the production of
blood and prevent constipation. Being
extremely high in potassium but low in salt
makes bananas the perfect food for helping
to beat blood pressure.
Interestly, Professor Ida stated that bananas
can also help people trying to give up
smoking because of its high levels of
Vitamin C, A1, B6, B12 as well as the
potassium and magnesium found in them,
which help the body to recover from the
effects of nicotine withdrawal.
He warned that people should consult their
physicians before embarking on the usage
of any herbal plant for treatment of any
ailment and the usage should be based on

Alligator Pepper, Pawpaw Widely Used Herbal Male Contraceptives.

For long, men had only a limited choice of
contraceptive methods like abstinence,
withdrawal, condoms, vasectomy, etc.
Despite this, men went on participating in various efforts
to control fertility for age.
For a long time, man played a prominent
role in contraceptive use until the
introduction of oral contraceptives and
modern intrauterine contraceptive devices
(IUDs) in the second half of the 1900s.
With the development of successful
methods on females, most of the burden of
contraceptive are now on women, thus
taking men out from the sphere of
contraceptive. Globally, men have not
shared the responsibility equally with
women for fertility regulation; the lack of
male involvement may also reflect the
limited options available to men.
The use of herbs is almost universal among
non-industrialised societies, including
Nigeria. In fact, most Nigerians, especially
those living in rural communities still prefer
to solve their health problems by consulting
traditional healers.
But the patronage of traditional healers by
men in Nigeria for contraceptive purposes
is not an exception as indicated by the
findings of an ethnobotanical survey on
herbal male contraceptives used in the
South-western part of Nigeria.
This was a survey carried out by Iyabo
Mobolawa Adebisi and Shaibu Oricha Bello
from the Usmanu Danfodiyo University,
Sokoto. It was a 2011 study published in
the African Journal of Pharmacy and
Pharmacology. It took inventory of plants
used as male contraceptives in the region.
Using convenient sampling, one local
government was selected from each of four
states. These were Sagamu Local
government area in Ogun State; Ibadan
Southwest LG in Oyo State; Ede LG in Osun
State and Ofa local government in Kwara
State. The investigation was conducted by
direct interview of 15 traditional healers
and medicinal plant sellers, documenting
consultations for contraception by male,
names of medicinal plants used, methods of
preparation and doses of administration.
Traditional healers are person recognised
by the community as persons competent to
provide health care by using vegetable,
animal and mineral substances and other
certain methods based on the social, cultural
and religious background. Similarly,
traditional medicinal ingredient traders are
those involved in buying and selling of
plants, animals and insects used in making
herbal preparations.
The results of the survey, which indicated
that over six different plant materials were
used either as single preparation or in
combination as male contraceptives, found
that alligator pepper and pawpaw bark
were the most widely used herbs as male
contraceptive. Their common methods of
application include oral decoction, dried
powder applied to skin incisions and as
rings soaked in herbs and worn on the
The plants used as male contraceptives
include leaves of Boehaavia diffusa
(commonly referred to as Hogweed or
Etiponla); Parkia biglobo seeds (commonly
referred to as locust beans or Iru);
decoction of Pawpaw bark (Ibepe in
Yoruba); Alligator pepper seed (Ataare in
Yoruba); decoction of Xylopia aethipica
(commonly referred to as Eeru Alamo in
Yoruba or Negro or Ethiopian pepper);
decoction of Tetrapleura tetraptera fruits
(Aidan in Yoruba); and lime juice (Osan
wewe in Yoruba).
The leaves of Hogweed, locust beans,
pawpaw bark and alligator pepper seed
were used in the ring form by the men.
Ring form of application involves boiling a
metal ring in water extract of the plant for
hours. The ring is then worn on the finger
during sexual activities.
However, some of these plants were also
used in the combination for male
contraception. The combination of
Hogweed, locust bean and alligator pepper
as well as pawpaw and alligator pepper
were used in the ring form. Also, the
combination of pawpaw bark and
Tetrapleura tetraptera was used as incision
while the combination of lime juice and
potash were taken as decoction. Incision
involves making up to seven cuts on the leg
and applying the dried powder of the plant
to the fresh wound.
Nonetheless, all the traditional healers and
medicinal plant sellers interviewed stated
that all plants and methods of application
were equally effective.
The researchers remarked that even in
traditional medicinal practices, male
contraceptive is not in vogue because only
26.7 per cent of interviewees have ever
been consulted for or offer male
contraceptives. According to them, “the
availability of female orthodox hormonal
contraceptives that are either frequently
free or are offered at a very low cost may
have discouraged the continued practice of
traditional contraceptive methods,
especially in case of males, with loss of
knowledge of its practice.”
“This possibility makes it very important to
conduct further studies to document
available knowledge of medicinal plants
used for male contraception. The use of
medicinal plants as decoction and incision
may be consistent with pharmacological
effects but the wearing of rings that have
been boiled in herbal extracts or
concoctions for contraception may be
difficult to explain,” they indicated in their
According to them, trans-dermal delivery of
the active chemical(s) may be an
explanation but the requirement for putting
on the ring only during sexual activities
makes this explanation unlikely.
Quite a number of medicinal plants like
Achyranthes aspera (èèmá àgbò in Yoruba
and óòdådå ngwèlè in Igbo) and pawpaw
have already been shown previously by
researchers to have male anti-fertility
properties. Pawpaw seed extract has been
shown to possess in vitro sperm
immobilising effect on human sperm.

Friday, July 1, 2011


Migraine is a specific type of severe
headache caused by alternating dilation and
constriction of the blood vessels on the
surface of the brain; typically lasting
4-72hours, accompanied by visual
disturbances and/or nausea and vomiting.
Another name for migraine headaches is
hemicrania (literally, “half head”),
introduced into modern medicine by Galen
(A.D 131-201), which reflects the fact that
they usually affect one side of the head.
Unilateral headache is still regarded as the
cardinal feature of migraine, although the
diagnosis may be made in the absence of
What actually causes the changes in the
blood vessels that produce migraines is not
known. Sufferers from migraine are more
prone to allergies. In susceptible people, a
wide variety of factors will trigger this
psychological response, including emotional
stress, hormonal changes, chemicals or
additives used in foods, specific types of
foods, caffeine, drugs, cigarette smoke,
alcohol, strong odours, strong light, air
pollution and even sudden changes in the
Classically, a migraine starts with visual
disturbances. Jagged brilliant streaks of light
(fortification figures) may be seen on one
side, bright spots may obscure the vision,
which may become blurred or even
completely lost.
After 15 to 30 minutes these symptoms
give way to a boring pain on one side of
the head, which typically reaches peak
intensity after an hour or so and may
persist for days. The headache becomes
throbbing in character and is often
accompanied by nausea and vomiting.
The characteristic feature of migraine is that
it occurs in attacks, separated by intervals
of freedom. In addition, the headache
tends to last for several hours and may
persist for days. Women are slightly more
susceptible than men and in often runs in
It is strongly advocated
that the best way to prevent or control
migraine is by going back to Nature in
terms of dietary intake, exercise and socio-
psychological life styles.
Notable among the natural remedies for
effective control and total cure of migraine
is a combination of natural extracts of
herbs such as a Viscum album, Allium cepa,
Allium sativum, Ginkgo biloba and Zingiber

Peppermint Oil Prevents Candidiasis

Candidiasis is not a strange term to many-
most especially to the female population
because females are very prone to
developing a vaginal yeast infection.
Compared to men, the environment of the
female genital is much more prone to the
growth of not only yeast, but other forms
of micro-organisms as well because it is
warm, dark and moist.
However, of all fungal infections common in
the sexually transmitted infections parlance,
candidiasis is a stand-out condition that
occurs more commonly among 70 to 75 per
cent women of childbearing age
worldwide, at least, once during their lives.
Unfortunately, when a person contacts this
condition, spreading it will be very easy,
most especially during unprotected sex. In
addition, people with compromised body
immunity, who abuse antibiotics, wear tight
fitted underwear and have diseases, such
as diabetes are more prone to developing
this vaginal yeast infection.
Certainly candidiasis is not a rare problem
among women because it causes itching,
redness and sensitivity of the virginal area,
especially during the menstrual period. But
with the advent of human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in
1982 to date, the clinical relevance of
vaginal candidiasis has proportionately
deepened along with the course of other
sexually transmitted disease (STDs) because
they contribute significantly to the spread
of HIV infections at the onset of this
Different classes of drugs are available to
treat fungal infections such as candidiasis,
but their intensive clinical use for both
treatment and prevention of candidiasis has
favoured the emergence of resistant
strains. The phenomenon of drug resistance
has raised interest in substances of natural
origin as a therapeutic alternative.
Scientists, in the last few years have being
looking for alternatives for treatment of
candidiasis in the wild. The latest on the list
of plant materials tested was the essential
oils of an aromatic plant called Mentha
Mentha suaveolens, whose close family in
Nigeria is referred to as peppermint plant,
has been used in the traditional medicine of
the Mediterranean areas and has a wide
range of effects: tonic, stimulating,
increases appetite, laxative, analgesic,
choleretic, prevents seizures, sedative,
reduces blood pressure (hypotensive) and
insecticidal. It is also useful for treating
conditions that give pain.
Scientists, in a new study to ascertain the
usefulness of Mentha suaveolens in the
treatment of candidiasis under laboratory
conditions, indicated that the oil extracted
from this plant was potent against this
fungal infection. They found that the oil
gave some degree of protection against
vaginal candidiasis.
They wrote: “In addition, essential oil of
Mentha suaveolens (EOMS) was shown to be
not only an inhibitor of candida growth, but
also able to actually kill the yeasts. We
determined the time killing curves, and so
discovered that EOMS was apparently more
effective than the more extensively
investigated essential oils of tea tree
(Melaleuca alternifolia) (TTO). All experiments
were performed against a control, the
jasmine oil, which proved totally ineffective.
They concluded in the 2011 BMC
Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Journal: “Our findings lay the ground for
further, more extensive investigations to
identify the active EOMS component(s),
promising in the therapeutically problematic
setting of chronic vaginal candidiasis in
Natural medicines are increasingly
important in treating disease and traditional
knowledge provides a starting point in the
search for plant-based medicines. Although
the plants tested had a lower potency than
conventional antibiotics, they offer hope
against resistant species. These results are a
starting point for further testing in the
laboratory and clinic.
Several plants have been tested for broad
spectrum antibiotics, which are able to
combat bacteria including E. coli, S. aureus
and the fungi candida and Aspergillus. Both
desert date and castor oil plant were
especially able to target bacteria, such as
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which are known
to be difficult to treat with conventional
However, the following candidiasis
treatments are important to prevent the
delay of healing and transmission of this
Yogurt: Sugar-free yogurt can be used as
yeast infection treatment either by applying
it directly on the genitals or eating them.
Yogurt contains good bacteria that can fight
the candidiasis causing micro organisms in
the genitals. Simply apply an adequate
amount of yogurt into the affected area
and leave it there for some minutes. Wash it
properly and make sure no yogurt remains.
Garlic: Garlic is a great yeast antagonist,
making it one of the most effective yeast
infection treatments.
It can be taken either as a tablet form or a
freshly cut/ chopped garlic. Garlic can
provide a soothing effect on yeast infection
and can lessen the pain and itch that
accompany it. It contains an enzyme called
Allicin which kills bacteria and fungi
Water therapy: Drink at least between eight
to 10 glasses of water. This would provide
the body enough hydration to flush out the
toxins and other bacteria which can lead to
diseases like yeast infection.
Apple cider vinegar: Apple cider vinegar is
also an excellent yeast infection cure. Dilute
this vinegar with warm water and use it to
wash the entire area to promote healing
and avoid further spread to adjacent areas.
Honey: Honey is not only a great sweetener
to foods and desserts; it can be applied
over the affected area as a yeast infection
cure. Leave the honey over the area for
about 15 minutes and wash the entire area
with warm water because glucose is a great
food for bacteria.

Peptic Ulcers

PEPTIC ulcers are erosions in the lining of
the digestive system; especially the lower
part of the oesophagus, the stomach and
the first part of the duodenum, caused by
the action of digestive juices (hydrochloric
acid and pepsin) secreted by the stomach.
Under normal circumstances, the lining of
the gut is able to withstand the action of the
digestive secretions. But when the natural
defence mechanisms of the body are
weakened by drugs, alcoholism, smoking,
poor nutrition, stress and anxiety,
malfunctioning and ulceration of the
digestive tract may occur. Dietetic
indiscretion such as overeating, taking of
heavy meals or highly spiced foods, coffee,
alcohol and smoking are the main factors
contributing to this condition.
Symptoms may start at any age, but usually
begin in young adulthood. Males are
affected four times as frequent as females.
Usually the patient complains of upper
abdominal pain – variously described as
gnawing, burning, cramp-like or boring.
Typically, the pain starts an hour or two
after a meal and is relieved in about half an
hour by food or milk. As the disease
progresses, there is distension of the
stomach due to excessive flatulence, mental
tension, insomnia, bad temper and gradual
weakening of the body. Blood may also be
detected in the stool.
The natural remedies are
aimed at reducing over-secretion of the
digestive juices, to neutralise the excess
acid after it has been secreted and to
increase the resistance of the gastro-
intestinal lining to the action of pepsin and
It is advisable to avoid foods which
stimulate excessive acid secretion – such as
tea, coffee, cola drinks and alcohol. Smoking
encourages ulceration and delays healing.
So, it should be avoided. Milky diets and
antacids do not speed healing but they may
help to relieve the symptoms. Meals,
however, should be regular and frequent to
neutralise the acid that is produced.
The remedy being suggested for
total cure of peptic ulcer is a combination of
natural extracts of Capsicum frutescens,
Entandrophragma utile, Glycyrrhiza glabra
and Musa paradisiaca.